Looks like the smallest particle in the Universe?

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Many of you may be naive to believe that the smallest particle in the Universe is the atom. What do atom was considered the smallest and indivisible particle until the discovery in 1897 by Joseph Thomson of electron; proton, which was opened in 1920 by Ernest Rutherford, and in 1932 of the neutron, which was first discovered by the English physicist James Chadwick. After almost 100 years, we know that everything in the Universe is composed of quarks — the mysterious particle that actively participate in the gravitational and electromagnetic interactions. So what is quark and how it looks?

Quarks are the smallest particle in the Universe

What is quark?

The quark is the smallest particle of the universe. From quarks consist of all the electrons, neutrons and protons of atoms, each of which was formed 13.7 billion years ago just after the Big Bang. A few minutes after the birth of the Universe, our universe could cool enough to form the first elementary particles — quarks and electrons. Quarks combined with each other, forming the nucleus of atoms. After about 400,000 years, the universe was able to cool so much that there was a delay in the movement of electrons, allowing the atomic nuclei to capture them. In this way all visible and invisible space we were able to acquire the first atoms of helium and hydrogen, which, incidentally, still remain the most common substances in the Universe.

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Look like atomic particles?

The largest of the atomic particles are the protons and neutrons are heavier than electrons and are located right in the center of the atom. The electrons also form a lightweight cloud that revolves around the atomic nucleus. It is known that the weight of 1800 electrons corresponds to a single heavyweight-proton. Also, the addition of at least one proton to an atom leads to the formation of a new substance with the original properties, with the addition of excess neutrons creates only a isotope of a substance, or simply a more severe version of it.

The nucleus of an atom consists of protons, neutrons, and electrons, which, in turn, consist of quarks

The largest of the atomic particles are the protons and neutrons are heavier than electrons and are located right in the center of the atom. The electrons also form a lightweight cloud that revolves around the atomic nucleus. It is known that the weight of 1800 electrons corresponds to a single heavyweight-proton. Also, the addition of at least one proton to an atom leads to the formation of a new substance with the original properties, with the addition of excess neutrons creates only a isotope of a substance, or simply a more severe version of it.

As mentioned above, absolutely all elementary particles consist of quarks. which represent the basis of the universe. Interesting fact: the Name “quark” was taken in one of the famous novels in the XX century, writer-modernist James Joyce, which is unusual in a word has decided to designate the sound ducks.

James Joyce — writer, which has given the term “quarks”

The quarks are divided into 6 so-called “flavors”, each of which has its own characteristics, or “color”. In addition, each of the 6 types of quarks has its own very original name. So, in addition to bottom and top quarks, there are strange, charmed, lovely and true quarks.

Of course, the “strangeness” or “prelestnoi” quarks are very different from our usual concepts. Similarly, as the concept of the colors of quarks really has in mind is not their hue, but the method of interaction of quarks and other micro-particles — gluons. Well, the fantasy of scientists sometimes can surprise.

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In any case, the quarks are truly unique particles from which all meaning depends on the existence of our Universe in the form in which we know it. Perhaps the mystery of the origin of the Big Bang and our comprehension of the fundamental laws of the Universe do depend on one tiny grain of sand, which is thousands and thousands of times smaller than an atom.